The BCL-2 prosurvival protein is implicated in HIV persistence and is a potential therapeutic target for HIV eradication efforts. We now know that cells harboring HIV are preferentially enriched for high BCL-2 expression, enabling their survival, and that the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax promotes the death of actively replicating HIV-infected cells in vitro and ex vivo. Herein, we assess the effect of venetoclax on immune clearance of infected cells and show that BCL-2 inhibition significantly enhances target cell killing induced by Fas ligand, TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), and perforin/granzyme B and synergistically enhances autologous NK (natural killer) and CD8 cells’ killing of target cells. In a humanized mouse model of acute HIV infection, venetoclax monotherapy significantly decreases plasma viremia and normalizes CD4:CD8 ratios, and results in more mice with undetectable provirus levels than control. In this model, treatment was associated with leukopenia, as has been described clinically in patients receiving venetoclax for other indications. These data confirm meaningful anti-HIV effects of venetoclax during HIV infection but suggest that venetoclax use should be combined with ART (antiretroviral therapy) to reduce toxicity. IMPORTANCE This study is the first to examine the applicability of BCL-2 inhibition in the setting of active HIV infection in vivo. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that venetoclax significantly enhances target cell killing induced by Fas ligand, TRAIL, and perforin/granzyme B and synergistically enhances autologous NK and CD8 cells’ killing of target cells.